We assume that people have multiple resources to deal with stress and pressure. The effect of such protective and self-healing powers best expresses itself in the phenomenon of “resilience.” Resilience exists when individuals in major psychologically or physically stressful situations are able to maintain their mental health or quickly restore it following a brief period of experiencing stress-related symptoms.
Resilience is often thought of as a fixed characteristic or individual trait that protects people who have it from the negative outcomes of stress. However, people change as they successfully deal with stressors. This may manifest itself through changes in life perspectives, an emergence of new strengths or skills, partial immunization against the effects of future stressors, or even in the form of epigenetic changes and modified gene expression patterns. This likely means that maintenance or quick recovery of mental health can be traced back to a positive adjustment to stressors. Thus, the ability to deal with stress and pressure is not simply an insensitivity to stress, rather the result of an active and dynamic adjustment process.